Development of Vedic social system of casteism in Bengal
By Dr. K.K. Debnath ([email protected])
Acknowledgements: The author wishes to express his gratitude to various historians for their various books and articles, which helped author to collect these data, used for analysis in this article. Author refers to approximately 45 books in this regard, on ancient history of India, history of Kerala, Temple architectures and various religious books including Vedas, Upanishads, and Gita. Once again, Author sincerely express his gratitude to all of them.
In this article Vedic and Non Vedic social system is discussed and analysed the background of Varna pratha/Caste System of Bengal.
It is observed that a lot of myths have been created that high caste Bengalis are outsiders and descendent of Aryans, who were the originator of Vedic civilization.
A detailed structured analysis has been made and carried out particularly of high class Brahmins of Bengal with respect to the development of casteism.
It is noticed from this analysis that there was no caste system until the arrival of Sena Kings in Bengal at 11th century AD, even though Bengal was a place where Upanisadic philosophy, Jain Philosophy, Buddhist philosophies and other Vratya philosophies were developed, by Vratya people, who later on embraced/converted/adopted Vedic Social system due to its intrinsic/hidden benefits for upper class people by accepting its authority, while keeping their own traditional practices.
This article is divided in to various sections each detailing about a particular aspect and finally the analysis is made in an integrated way.
Genesis of Division of Labour in human society:
It is a natural phenomenon that any administrative system, whether it is an industrial system, or a political system or any social system, the system of control normally looks similar to that of pyramidal structure. That is to say that at any organization there is a supreme head, followed by few assistants and each of these few assistants is further assisted by a few more and like this, the control or governance follows from top to down level.
This is also the fundamental principle towards the development of famous ABC rules for effective Resource Management control system in any organization.
The ABC theory states that in any resource utility system, there are hardly few resources estimated around 5% of the total resources whose contribution or value addition is 60% of the total resources. These are called A-class resources and utmost care is given to these few resources. This is due to the reason that almost 60% of the contribution depends on these few resources and also maximum benefit is earned from these mearge resources. Next important resource defined as B-class resource, which constitutes the next 20% value of the total contribution. The numbers of such resources are also found to be approximately 10% of the total number of resources. The 3rd category of resources are defined as those items, whose contribution with respect to total contribution is moderate, but number wise may be significant. The Nos. of resources in this category is thus comes to 25% while the value of contribution approximately at 15% of total value. These numbers of resources are called C-class resources. The last category of resources can be defined as D-class resorces and their contribution in terms of value comes at 5% Approximately, while in terms of population it constitute 60% of total population.
However, if resources fall under A-class does it mean that the same resource will remains under A-class category forever?
The answer is may be or may not be, it will continue to remain, as long as it continue to dominate the total contribution (value addition) otherwise it may fall under B or C category.
In similar way, resources coming under B or C category may also come under A- category depending upon the contribution to the total contribution (value addition to the organization).
Thus, any resources may not continue to remain at a fixed position permanently. It totally depends on its contribution to the organization/Institute/society/State/Country.
In case, there is no contribution from a resource, which was earlier classified under A-category, may become an obsolete resource in future and come out of the slot of ABC analysis of useful resources. These obsolete resources, which now becomes a liability may be classified under one more category called as “E” category of resources. Therefore based on Utilisation, resources may be classified as under:
A-class:These 5% of the resources, whose contribution is 60% in terms of total contribution with respect to value, are called as A-class resources.
B-class: The next 10% of the resources, whose contribution are 20% in terms of total value; are called as B-class resources.
C-class: The next 25% of the resources, whose contribution are 15% in terms of total value; are defined as C-class resources.
D-class: The next 60% of the resources, whose contribution are only around 5% of total
Value, are defined as D-class resources.
E-class: The resource which becomes contribution less or becomes a liability in the organization is termed as E-class resources.
This is found to be true for all resources, be it human resource or material resource of any society /community etc. This is universally true in human society, whether the society or community is Aryans, Non-Aryans or Mongolian.
In every community there exists a small minority of intellectuals, like creative thinkers, scientists etc., which constitute the think Tank or brain of the society. Statistically their strength is found to be around 5% with respect to the total population. This small group of people makes the policy and rules of the society, to keep the society intact towards the upliftment and development of people and society; as guide, philosopher, policy makers etc.
Their contribution to the society is maximum and critical in terms of value addition. These people may be referred as A-category people of the society.
The next category of people can be termed as administrators, executives, managers etc. These people are responsible to execute the policy, administer the policy and protect the policy or rules as defined by the A-category of people. These people have to be very courageous and brave to overcome the hurdles to execute and govern the task, laid down by the policy makers, whether it is internal affairs or external affairs of the society. They are therefore subjected to maintain the integrity of the society or nation from external threats and also from the internal trouble creators towards peace and harmony of the society/state/country. These groups statistically found to be comprise of 10% of the total population of the society and enjoy the status only next to A-category people. These 10% people may be called as B-category people of the society.
To execute the policy the society needs financial resources. Therefore, there is a need for the people, towards the necessary supply of this resources and facilities for the establishment. Towards the establishment of facilities there is need of money and its proper management. There are some people who normally control the financial affairs of the society and handles trade, commerce, and industry and also preserve material wealth towards the development and further progress of the society. Statistically, the strength of this group is estimated around 25% of the total population. This group of society may be referred as C-category of people.
The rest 60% of the total population, who also contribute to the society through their labour, may be referred as D-category of people. They constitute the typical work force of the society.
These four categories of people are the primary constituents of any society or organization or institution under normal and natural condition. These four categories now are named as Brahmins for A-category, Kshatriyas for B-category, Vaishyas under C-category and Sudras under D-category. In the human society humans are also resource, thus they are defined in line with above natural principle as:
- Brahmin: This was the intellectual community and was placed at the highest rank in the society. They were the priest community and were entitled to study and learn Vedic rules/rituals and preach accordingly. These people were supposed to know “Brahma” and live on “Brahma” They were the social administrators and were in the ministerial and advisory posts for kings. They were the policy/rule makers and kings were to execute these rules over the society.
- Kshatriya: This was defined as the martial/military community. Their role was to look after the defence of their state/country. These people were supposed to look after the “Kschetra” and protect it from others.”Kschetra” means Area of Land. They were also to look after the political administrative affairs with the help and guidance of minister, as per the rules formed by Brahmins. They were ranked as number two. i.e. next to Brahmins in the society
- Vaishya: This was the community of Traders of Business people. They were supposed to help Kings in financial affair. These people were supposed to look after “Vishaya” means wealth. This community was ranked as third or next to Kshatriyas community.
4. Sudras: This was a community of people of working class and known as Labour community. They were at the lowest category of the society. They were supposed to work for other three communities for the benefits of the society.
Each of these above groups can be further subdivided based on the theory as stated above and further Sub-categories or classes can be derived among each category separately.
Aryan/Vedic Social System
Rig-Veda mentioned at 3rd Mandala, 59th Sukta at 8th Sloka about 5 different Varnas. Again same Rig-Veda mentioned at 10th Mandala, 90th Sukta (which is known as famous Purusha Suktam) about the origin of four Varnas/castes namely Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Sudras. At a later date we find in all post Vedic literature that it got converted as heredity wise, probably by taking the cue from Rig Veda.
Non-Aryan/Non-Vedic social system
Non-Vedic/Non-Aryan or Vratya civilizations are Jainism, Buddhism, Saivaism Nathism, Ajeevakas etc.The Vratya religions used to recognise the divisions of labour depending on the natural ability and liking/interest of the individual as Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra.
Vratya civilizations do not recognize the division of Labour based on heredity or as a birth right of the people. This civilization believed on the ability of an individual, not as a father’s son. The Hallmark of Vratya society was castelessness.
Establishment of Vedic social system
Reason for acceptance of Vedic social system
Initially at the primitive stage, these groups or categories of labour were formed according to the ability and interest of the individuals. Anyone who could compose hymns (poems), which attracted the attention of people and became popular and also commanded the admiration of people, was honoured with the title “Brahmin”. A man who rose to the distinction in the profession of arms was eulogized as “Kshatriya” and so on. The word Brahmana or Kshatriya had no bearing on caste consideration, i.e. it had no bearings on the birth of the individuals.
Hence, a person born to a C-category parent also could become an A-category citizen and vice-versa according to the ability.
Thus a Sudra male could rise to level of a Brahmin and a Brahmin boy by birth also could fall to the level of Sudra, due to their virtue. This is the natural beginning towards formation of any society, which is observed among tribal community, where everything belongs to the community.
In course of time, family concept appeared, rules and regulations were introduced for living as a member of family and also as a member of the society in safe condition with dignity and honour. In course of time dilution took place in this labour system; this was accelerated due to the tendency to protect the interest of individual and his descendents. In course of time the theory of monopoly was developed as it was found to be advantageous and beneficial to A-category people. However, the policy could not be implemented without the help of the executive or the king and his associates (i.e. the other executives, administrators, Governors Etc.)
Therefore, the chief executive was elevated with the highest authority and a policy was made that the son of a king would be the natural successor of the king, which was of tremendous advantageous and beneficial to the King and by this, the dispute for the future king was eliminated.
Thus, came the ruling that son of a chief executive would also become a chief executive and automatically followed by that the son of Brahmin would also became a Brahmin and so on.
The chief executive officer was titled as king and declared as the representative of God or simply as God for protection of the society. By this method, king was isolated from the rest of the people of the society. Next in the line were executives, since without them the rules/policies could not be executed, and as a result they got the status next to A-category. This process continued to the grass-root level of the society and thus the caste system was firmly established in the society. However, there were people or groups of people, who were against this theory of casteism or monopoly. The sprit and hallmark of the Non-Vedic society viz. Vratyas and were castelessness. Therefore, the conflicts started between the people, who are for casteism and who were against casteism.
Historically, Buddhists, Jains and Ajeevakas, Nathas were found to be strong opponents of casteism. Among them Buddhism not only was opponent but they really fought against casteism. As a result they became the main enemy and target of Brahmanism, who were the staunch followers of casteism.
However, it became impossible for those Brahmins to establish the caste system without wiping off the Buddhists. For this purpose, there was a need of support from king B-category and C-Category people.
Thus it could be seen from the various historical facts that Caste system or Varnashrama system gained real strength only when Brahmins (A-category) and Kshatriyas (B-category) joined hands together.
Historians opine that from the time of Samudragupta to the time of Sankaracharya, there were persistent efforts of Vedic Brahmins to establish their authority by liquidating Buddhism completely. It is said that Sankaracharya put the final blow on Buddhism. However, Buddhism could not be perished and were in existence even after the period of Sankaracharya but their power was reduced to almost nil at most of the parts of India due to migration of intellectuals from non Vedic faith to Vedic faith due to immense intrinsic benefits. Finally Shree Chaitanya Mahaprabhu cremated the rest of the Buddhism at Varanasi, during 14th century A.D.
Gradually Brahmanism grew by destroying Buddhism and Jainism and Ajeevakas with the help of Kings and Merchants and simultaneously by assimilating the tenets of these religions and cultures.
Some of the notable historical events are described below, how the AIDS of casteism in the name of Vedic religion as supreme religion was spread in India:
- The famous Saivas Appara and Tirugnana Sambandar with the connivance of the Queen and the Chief Minister managed to convert the Great King Mayura varman from Jainism to Saivaism, and on the day of conversion 8000 Jain monks were beheaded. Even today, this incident is celebrated at Madurai temple. Further to this, the image of Tirugnana Sambandar was installed in all temples for worship due to this great achievement
- Nambi Andar Nambi at 10th century AD and Sekkizhar of 12th century AD considered the act of converting the king to Saivaism and slaughter of Jain monks as “heroic” deed of great victory of Saivaits.
- Tirumangai Alwar became famous for the stealing of Gold idol of Buddha from a Buddhist temple at Nagapattinam and for building the famous Sriranganatha temple with these stolen properties.
- There are many incidents where Buddhist/Jain temples were converted to Hindu temples. Few of them are quoted below :
I. The present Hindu temple of Tiruchanam near Kuzhithurai was originally a Jain temple. This temple contains idols of Parshwanath, Mahavir and Padmavati Devi.
II. The Nagaraja temple at Nagarcoil was also a Jain temple, which was converted to Hindu temple.
III. The Kallil cave temple near Perumbavoor was originally a Jain temple. .
IV. The Mudiumpalli temple was originally a Jain temple. The Jain goddess Padmavati was converted as Goddess Bhagavati.
V. Kapoteswara temple at Chezarla in Andhra Pradesh was converted to Hindu temple around 5th/6th century AD.
VI. The Tagara temple at Sholapur of Maharashtra was originally a Buddhist temple. But converted to Hindu temple during 5th century AD.
VII. According to Jaina literature the famous Tirupati Temple of Lord Venkateshwara was originally a Jaina temple. It was dedicated to Jaina Tirthamkar “Neminatha”. It is also believed that the present idol of Lord Venkateshwara was actually idol of “Neminatha. This was converted into a Brahmin temple.
According to historians, there is no existence of Tirupati temple in ancient period, whereas Kalahasthi and Srisailam temple were famous in those periods. This Tirupati temple came into prominence during the period of Krishnadev raya of Vijaya Nagar Dynasty of Karnataka around 16th century AD.
In a similar way at north India too, there are examples, where Buddhist temples were converted to Hindu temples and Buddha was converted as Vishnu or Buddha was made as an incarnation of Vishnu. The classic one of this is the conversion of famous Buddhist temple of Gaya and conversion of Buddha as Vishnu. At this temple every Hindu is required to offer Pindadanam at the lotus feet of Buddha in the name of Vishnu towards relieving of the soul of their ancestors to merge with the universal soul.
The present temple of Kala-Bhairava or Mahakala near Bodhgaya was originally a Buddhist temple. The idle of Buddha in the form of a Bauddha Bhikhsu made of black stone had been converted as an idle of Mahakala.
The world famous Pashupatinath temple of Kathmandu was also originally a Buddhist temple which was converted at later stage into a Saiva temple.
The Anantasayana posture of Lord Vishnu was actually that of Buddha and modified to the present form. This conversion probably took place during 500 AD during the period of Guptas. No record or any idol of Vishnu was found in Hindu literature prior to 500 AD.
The famous Chinnamasta Goddess, Goddesses Tara and Tarini of Bengalis/Oriya were originally Buddhist Tantric Goddesses, which were converted as Hindu Goddess. At present they represent a form of Shakti Goddess Kali.
Earlier to Buddhism, no evidence of Sudarshan chakra of Vishnu or Krishna could be traced in Brahminic literature. Buddhism actually introduced the dharma chakra in their religion. During the period of King Ashoka, it was known as Ashoka chakra. Later on Brahmanism borrowed it from Buddhism and made Buddhism to perish from India.
The practice of running schools, libraries, hospitals, attached to temples and Mathas were ail originated from Buddhism and practiced by them. These were too copied by Brahmanism from Buddhism. Earlier to this Vedic learning was primarily found to be family oriented. Buddhism was the first religion to make public institutions like Mathas for education to common people. The establishment of Mathas by Lord Sankaracharya is the living example towards this
The educated persons or poets who encouraged Varnashrama system were declared as Brahmins and other people were classified according to their social status. Thus Adikavi Valmiki, Vyasa deva etc got the status of Brahmins in Brahminic Literatures. It is opined by historians, researchers that during the restructuring of the society at the time of downfall of Buddhism, Jainism, some member of a family became Brahmin, while others fall under different categories of caste etc. according to their profession and social status.
It is also stated by Historians. Researchers, that during the reorganization of the society, poor Brahmins were classified as Sudras, whereas other rich and powerful people were declared as Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya according to their influence or purchasing capability in the society. The people, who opposed this Varnapratha system, became the enemy of the kings and other supporters of Varna system and ultimately fallen under category of Sudra and Untouchables.
As per historians, there is a community in south India by name “Panas”. Today these people belong to Harijan or Untouchable Community; However people of Panas’ community were more respected than Brahmins during 400 AD. They became equal with Brahmins around 500 AD. Many educated Panas and Poets declared themselves as Brahmins during the reorganization of society towards casteism. The Panas who opposed casteism were placed out of Brahminical society and today referred as Harijans. It is interesting to note that Malayalam Brahmins are all Namboodiri Pada Brahmins. The use of Pada was found only among Buddhists; does it mean that these Namboodiris were Buddhists at earlier period?
In north India, the communities like Valmikis, Mouryas, Vyasas, Mallas, Kapilas, Nishads etc. in a similar manner (like Panas) became Sudras/Untouchables and now belongs to Harijan community.
It may be noticed that the ruling dynasty that had supported this Brahmanism policy of casteism and worked to establish caste based social system had been highly praised and their period was glorified and termed as golden period in our Indian literatures documented by people of Brahminic system.
Thus, the period of Gupta Dynasty of Magadha, Sena Dynasty of Bengal, Cholas, Pandians and Kulasekara dynasties of South India were declared as golden periods in Brahminic literatures. However, the fact is that the period of Mauryas of Magadha, Palas of Bengal, and Harsha of Kanauj and Pulakeshi of Andhra were much more powerful and glorious than Guptas & Senas.
During the re-organization of social system, the Buddhist and other Vratya literatures were completely burnt; their establishment and Mathas were destroyed. Their temples were converted to the temples of Brahmanism. It is said that the educational and cultural centre of Buddhism, the famous Nalanda University was burnt for more than a week. At a later date Muslim fundamentalists also did the similar things by destroying/converting Hindu temples into Mosques.
In the south, King Asoka built Kanchi Puram University, which was a Buddhist educational centre. Intellectuals of south and other places used to study and teach there. This was captured by Lord Sankaracharya by defeating the intellectuals of Kanchi and got the credit to convert them from Buddhism to Brahmanism. As a result the associated mathas in towns and villages was converted to Brahminic temple and all people were brought under the control of Brahmanism fold and thus Adi Sankar became famous as the Killer of Buddhism from India.
On the other hand, to bring the people under the fold of Brahmanism most of the Vratya tradition & practices were accepted under the new socio-religious system. All the Gods and Goddess were mapped with Brahminical God and Goddess.
Thus on the ruins of the Vratya system, the Brahminical system was born in the name of Hinduism. Keeping these in mind, the casteism in Bengal has been analyzed.
The geographical Location of high class Brahmins of Bengal:
In Bangadesha Upaddhyas with surnames as Mukhopaddhaya, Chottopaddhaya, Bondopaddhaya and Gongopaddhaya are known as the Brahmins of higher class and other Brahmins ranked below them in social status and during Christian period, it was modified these surnames to the liking of Christian rulers as Mukherjee, Chatterjee, Banerjee and Ganguly respectively. At a later date further divisions were made depending on their place of working and settlements also. Most of them are found to be in Radha or Radh area of Bengal, consisting of Bardhaman, Birbhum, Hooghly (along the bank of Ganga River) and surrounding areas. They are known as Kulin Brahmin.
Story of family dictionary of high class Brahmins of Bengal:
The Family dictionary made by them at a much later date says, they were originated from Kanauj, which was famous as one of the centre for Vedic learning. The story says, a King by name Adi Sur requested the King of Kanauj to depute few Brahmins from his kingdom to Bengal to perform Vedic Yagnas and rituals as there was no Vedic Brahmin available in this country. Accordingly learned Vedic Brahmins were deputed to Bangadesha and few Kayastha families were also deputed as servants to these Brahmins. The present generation of Kulin Brahmins and Kulin Kayasthas are descendents of those migratory Brahmins and Kayasthas respectively.
The genesis of Gaur Brahmins of North and Western India are found to be in Gaur-Bangla. As per brahminical literatures, their ancestors were invited by Parikshit the grandson of Arjuna to perform ‘Yagna’. They did not return and settled there and spread over north and western India.
Honourable Titles of Brahmins in Vedic and non Vedic society
Spiritually enlightened person:
Vedic system: They were honoured as Hrishi, Maharshi, and Brahmarshi as well as Rajarshi, Devarshi etc.
Vratya System: There were honoured as Mouni and Muni (who used to remain silent -Jains), and Acharya while others were honoured as Siddha (of Highest calibre), Saddhya (of Good calibre) and Kastha (celibacy at the initial period).
Vedic System: Intellectuals of lower order or beginners were called as Upaddhaya. Intellectuals/specialists of high order were honoured with title of Acharya.
Vratya System: It was opposite to that of Vedic System. Intellectuals of lower order or beginner were called as Acharya while Intellectuals/specialists of high order were honoured as Upadhyaya.
Spiritual and religious developments in Bengal
Historically the eastern part of India and in particular ancient Bangadesha is found to be origin and developments of various philosophies of India.
Jainism, the most ancient religion of India had its roots here, Upanisadic philosophies were composed at Mithila of ancient Bangadesha. Again Vira bahu/Bhadra Vahu the famous Jain muni and guru of Great king Chandragupta Maurya, belonged to Karna-Subarna (ancient Gaur) of Bengal, next we find Gaura pada, who had written the explanatory note on Upanishads (Known as Gaudapada Karika). Gaura pada was the grand guru of Bhagawan Adi Sankar, who was the founder of Addaitavad. After Gaura pada, we find another socio-spiritual religious leader in Lord Matsendra Nath. He along with disciple Siva Gorokh Nath changed the old tantric system of using female for tantric spiritual power, and placed the female in to the position of Mother. He founded the Sakti system or Kula system. As a result of these, 51 Sakti Peethas were established. It can be noticed that Bengalis are primarily worshiper of Maa Kali (Goddess of Sakti), even though at a later date they adopted Vaishnavism due to the influence of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
Location of 51 Tantra Peethas/Sakti Peethas
In Modern Hindu literature, 51 Sakti Peethas are mentioned. Historically out of these 51 Peethas almost 24 Peethas are found to be in ancient Bangadesha and 7 are around Bangadesha. These are the figures which speak of tantric features of Bengalis. It is also very interesting to note that out of these 51 Peethas; only 4 are recognized as Adi Sakti Peethas. These 4 Adi Sakti Peethas are 1) Godess Tara-Tarini, located in Ganjam district of Orissa, 2) Devi Vimala of Jagannatha Puri, 3) Maa Kamakhya of Kamroop and 4) Maa Kalika of Kalighat, Kolkata. The 1st three were originally Buddhist centre as per historians.
It is equally interesting to note that Matsendra Nath was associated with Kamakhya Peetha and it was his sadhana Kschetra. It was probably Matsendra Nath who was responsible to transform this Peetha from Buddhist Tantra Peetha to Saiva-Sakti Tantra Peetha.
Next en route falls Kali Ghat, historically it is accepted that Gorokh Nath was the founder of this Peetha, and one of his disciple Chourangi Nath was placed as the in charge of this Peetha.
Going south west we find Devi Vimala of Puri and Tara Tarini of Ganjam, again Buddhist tantra Peetha, which was transformed as Shiva Sakti Peetha.
However, out of 25 Sakti Peethas spread over Bangadesha, around 9 to are found to be only in Radha area (Bardhaman, Birbhum and Hooghly districts and adjoining area)
Vedic educational Centre: There were five Vedic centres and accordingly the Vedic Brahmins were categorized under the name of these centres. These are Utkala (Puri-Orissa), Gaura (Bangadesha), Mithila (Bangadesha), Kanauj (UP), and Sara Swat (Western Ancient Hindustan). Education was limited to people who were Brahmin by caste (exceptions are ignored).
Buddhist educational Centre: There are many Buddhists educational centres, notables among them are Nalanda (Adjacent to Ancient Banga Desha), Vikram Sila (Bangadesha), Odanto Puri (Banga Desha), and Taxila (Punjab), Kanchipuram (Tamil Nadu). Education was open to all, irrespective of caste.
Development of Varnapratha system in Bengal
Under the circumstances as explained above, an analysis has been carried out in the following sections.
1) High class Bengali Brahmins or Kulin Brahmins are found to be concentrated in Radha area of Bangadesha. As per their family dictionary their ancestors had migrated from Kanauj (UP) on behest of King Adi Sur, the reason was given that there were no Vedic Brahmins in Bengal.
This is found to be in contradiction due to the following reasons:
a) There was no king found in history of Bengal or Radha area by name Adi Sur. It appears to be hypothetical to impress upon the common people.
b) The similar migration theory also can be seen in case of Gouria Brahmins of North and western India. According to the literature, King Parikshit, the grandson of Arjuna of Mahabharata, invited these Gouria Brahmins from Bangadesha to perform Yagna, as there were no Vedic Brahmins available at Hastinapura. This contradicts the basis of Bengali Kulin Brahmins. This is another story which only points out that they did not want to be treated as a commoner and to prove that they are above them as representative of God or for some unknown reason to enhance their prestige in the society.
c) It also contradicts the theory that there were no Vedic intellectuals in Bengal as Mahabharata war took place long long back then the king Adi Sur period. Therefore these stories are blatant lies and propagated only to control the society effectively.
2) Let us look at the surnames and tiles of these high class or Kulin Brahmins. They are all Upaddhayas, and historians opined that at a later date it was prefixed by Mukho, Chotto, Bondo, Gango, according to the name of the village.
They are known as high class Brahmins in social structure, on the other hand Upaddhayas belong to low class Brahmin as per Vedic culture, and Acharyas are treated as high class Brahmins in Vedic system. This leads to another contradiction. On the other hand in Buddhist social system Upaddhayas were the highest class of intellectuals and Acharyas ranked below them. This pointed the origin of Bengali Kulin Brahmins towards Buddhist religion instead of Vedic religion.
They might have changed their place of living during the down fall of Buddhism and embraced or defected to Vedic religion for obvious reasons.
3) Historically it is proved that Buddhism was the originator of Tantra, Mantra and Yantra. The credit for this development goes to Mahayani Buddhists. According to historians at a later date Saivaism, Jainism, Vaishnavism and at the end Vedic people also adopted tantra due to its immense popularity. At this stage there was not much difference among Buddhist Tantric, Saiva Tantric and tantric of other religions and faiths. Thus we find Bhairava and Kaal Bhairava are still being worshiped by Buddhists, Jains and Vedic people. In course of time Lord Matsendra Nath and Siva Gorokh Nath changed the previous concept and mode of Sadhana, and placed female as mother character, in place of Bhairavi the female consort of Bhairava for tantric activities. Lord Matsendra Nath and Shiva Gorokh Nath, both were Nath Saiva or Nath Koula. It may be noted that Lord Siva is called as a Maha Koula. Lord Matsendra Nath was credited as the founder of Kula (Sakti) sect of India. The social followers of Matsendra Nath were known as Kulin (worshipers of Sakti, the mother Godess).
During this period, Maa Kamakhya of Kamroop (Seat of Sadhana of Matsendra Nath), became famous and in Tantra/Sakti literature is described as one of four Adi Sakti Peetha. Next was Maa Kali of Kalighat founded by Siva Gorokh Nath, another Adi Sakti Peetha. Godess Chinna Masta, the Buddhist Goddess became Kula/Sakti Godess. Same way goddess Vimala Devi of Puri, and Maa Tara Tarini of Buddhists became Sakti Goddesses. These four are known as Adi Sakti Peethas.
The influence of this Kula sadhana in Radha area can be observed by the heavy concentration of Sakti Peethas in this area and about 10 Sakti Peethas out of 51 Sakti Peethas are found in this Radh area. This could not be made possible unless the intellectual, influential people of this area became the patrons of Kula sadhana. These people probably became popular as Kulin, due to their belonging to Kula sect.
4) Let us look at the various educational centres of both Vedic and non Vedic religions. Out of five Vedic educational centres two are located in Bangadesha (Gaura and Mithila), 3rd one is at Puri adjoining Bangadesha and 4th one at central UP, only the last or 5th one was at Punjab. All the Brahmins of north India are classified under these categories as Utkali Brahmins, Maithili Brahmins, Kanauji Brahmins and Sara Swat Brahmins. This is not possible if Vedic Brahmins were not available in Bengal.
Towards, Buddhist educational centres again, it is observed that majority of them are located in this Bangadesha. Nalanda is adjacent to Bangadesha, Vikramashila and Odanto Puri in Bangadesha. Only Taxila and Kanchi Puram are found to be at outside Bangadesha.
Therefore there was no shortage of intellectuals of any religions in this Bangadesha, at any point of time.
5) The Vedic social system is found to be highly beneficial to powerful and influential people of the society. These people were the backbone towards the establishment of Caste system. The greatest advantage of caste/Varna system is that, it protects the interest not only of them but also for their children and future descendents in a permanent way.
Therefore, the future of a son of a King is fixed; the future of a son of Brahmin is also determined, irrespective of their quality and ability. This is not possible in a Vratya system, where a person is designated according to his qualities.
Thus, even though Vratya social system is more rational and more competitivel, it could not survive as it is not suitable and beneficial for a parent to protect the interest of their own children. It is very natural for a parent to look the benefits and interests of their children. This natural flow of love and affection of parent towards his own children made Vedic social system stronger and ahead of Vratya social system at any point of time.
The rational mindset of Bengalis made them to be closer to non-Vedic or Vratya system. Because of this strong background, the casteism could not be traced in Bengal until 12th century AD prior to Sena dynasty, even though it was firmly established in Madhya Desha (i.e. in present Bihar & UP), from the time of Gupta Dynasty during the 3rd century AD.
It also can be observed that Varnashrama System of Bengal does not conform to Vedic Varnashrama system. Besides this, the caste system in true sense is neither strong in Bengal nor it conforms the Vedic rules. Most of the Bengalis are found to be either Brahmin or Baidyas or Kayasthas or Sudras, not as Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra.
Thus the society was completely divided into various castes and sub castes and these preachers of Casteism had no problem in controlling the society using the policy of divide and rule. These phenomenons were occurred throughout India, whether it was north or south or west or east. The king, who was placed as God or representative of God found himself and his descendents at the best place of the society and they in turn supported the Brahminic system, Vedic social rules in the society, for their own interest.
It can be noticed that the King/Dynasty who had patronised Brahminic rules and help these elites to establish caste system, had been praised and their period was glorified and termed as golden period in India as per literatures written by them. This is found to be true for Gupta dynasty of Magadha, Sena Dynasty of Bengal, Chola dynasty, Pandian dynasty and Chera dynasty of south, Even though the period of Mauryas (Chandragupta Maurya, Bindusara and Ashoka) of North India, Harsha of Thaneshwar and Kanauj, Shasanka and Palas of Bengal were much more powerful and glorious than Guptas and Senas. The Sena Kings themselves were followers of Brahminic rules and hence there was very little problem to establish the Brahminic rules of Casteism.
This is how Sena kings (Ballala Sena and Laxman Sena) established the caste system in Bengal and as a reward for this achievements, their period was termed ias Brahminic literature as Golden period of Bengal.